American Muslims and vicarious trauma: An explanatory concurrent mixed-methods study.

This explanatory concurrent mixed-methods study aimed to explore vicarious trauma (VT) among American Muslims; whether they are experiencing it, what factors may be contributing, and how they are experiencing VT. VT and religious identity were the main variables of interest for the quantitative data; qualitative questions provided greater insight into participants’ personal experiences. Religious identity and ethnicity were found to be significant in the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) model and collectively explained 21% of the variance in VT scores. Phenomenological qualitative analysis of the qualitative responses revealed 9 themes, including humanity (being seen as less than human) and exposure (to trauma material). This study suggests that American Muslims are experiencing VT; in combination with qualitative responses, important policy changes can be recommended: policies addressing hate crimes should be strengthened, individuals in key professions need to be trained in Islam and Muslims, and further media guidelines and training must be conducted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)